Neuroscience

6/14/2020

 

 

Neuroscience (or neurobiology) :

is the scientific study of the nervous system. It combines physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, developmental biology, cytology, mathematical modeling, and psychology to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of neurons and neural circuits. The understanding of the biological basis of learning, memory, behavior, perception, and consciousness has been described by Eric Kandel as the "ultimate challenge" of the biological sciences.

The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to include different approaches used to study the nervous system at different scales and the techniques used by neuroscientists have expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons to imaging of sensory, motor and cognitive tasks in the brain.

The earliest study of the nervous system dates to ancient Egypt. Trepanation, the surgical practice of either drilling or scraping a hole into the skull for the purpose of curing head injuries or mental disorders, or relieving cranial pressure, was first recorded during the Neolithic period. Manuscripts dating to 1700 BC indicate that the Egyptians had some knowledge about symptoms of brain damage.

Early views on the function of the brain regarded it to be a "cranial stuffing" of sorts. In Egypt, from the late Middle Kingdom onwards, the brain was regularly removed in preparation for mummification. It was believed at the time that the heart was the seat of intelligence. According to Herodotus, the first step of mummification was to "take a crooked piece of iron, and with it draw out the brain through the nostrils, thus getting rid of a portion, while the skull is cleared of the rest by rinsing with drugs."

The view that the heart was the source of consciousness was not challenged until the time of the Greek physician Hippocrates. He believed that the brain was not only involved with sensation—since most specialized organs (e.g., eyes, ears, tongue) are located in the head near the brain—but was also the seat of intelligence.Plato also speculated that the brain was the seat of the rational part of the soul.Aristotle, however, believed the heart was the center of intelligence and that the brain regulated the amount of heat from the heart. This view was generally accepted until the Roman physician Galen, a follower of Hippocrates and physician to Roman gladiators, observed that his patients lost their mental faculties when they had sustained damage to their brains.

 

R Nemati, M Movahhednia, S Mehdizadeh… - Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2016

 

MT Asl, F Yousefi, R Nemati, M Assadi - EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND …, 2015

 

N Chabi, MT Asl, M Assadi - EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND …, 2015

 

MT Asl, R Nemati, M Assadi - EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND …, 2015

 

MT Asl, R Nemati, M Assadi - EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND …, 2015

 

A Shirkani, MT Asl, F Hafezi, R Nemati, M Assadi - EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND …, 2015

 

H Salimipour, S Mehdizadeh, R Nemati, MR Pourbehi… - Case reports in neurological medicine, 2015

 

MT Asl, F Yousefi, R Nemati, M Assadi - International journal of clinical and experimental …, 2015

 

R Nemati, I Nabipour, H Javadi, N Chabi, M Assadi - Case reports in radiology, 2014

 

R Nemati, S Mehdizadeh, I Nabipour, A Amini… - Nuclear medicine communications, 2013
 


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دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر، بوشهر ، ایران
Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran